MMB/SSD Utils in perl

A tar file with the files
GitHub repo. PRs welcome!
Last modified: Tue Mar 21 18:25:16 EDT 2023

Beeb Utilities to manipulate MMB and SSD files
Copyright (C) 2012-2015 Stephen Harris

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301, USA.



Something like
mkdir /usr/local/beeb
cd /usr/local/beeb
tar xvf ..../mmb_utils.tar
ln -s /usr/local/beeb/beeb  /usr/local/bin/beeb


For all the commands that work on MMB files, the default MMB is called
"BEEB.MMB" but this can be changed with "-f otherfile" if used as the
first parameter, or by setting $BBC_FILE

  beeb dinfo 2
would do a "*INFO" for all files in image 2 in BEEB.MMB
  beeb dinfo -f other.MMB 2
would do a "*INFO" for all files in image 2 in other.MMB
  export BBC_FILE=myfile.MMB
  beeb dinfo 2
would do a "*INFO" for all files in image 2 in myfile.MMB

For greater control of the MMB file used, see later around $BEEB_UTILS_DFS

Other commands that work on normal files do not need "-f" as the first
option because they typically always require an filename (no default)
  beeb info filename.ssd
  beeb list MYPROG
SSD filenames may be entered as type:filename (eg stl:mydisk.ssd).  See
the following section on BEEB_UTILS_DFS for the meaning of "type".

We never allow disk images in the MMB to be referred to by name; you
must always use the slot number.

One environment variable may be used:
This alters how the catalgue is read.  The format is type:filename
  Default type is Acorn
  Default filename is BEEB.MMB
If there is no : in the value then it is read as a filename with type "acorn"

Allowed values for type are
  OPUS  (or DDOS)  ---- UNTESTED!!
  ACORN (same as empty)
What this changes is how the "extra byte" information and extra catalogues
are read.

This value may also be set in $HOME/.beeb_utils_dfs
If the environment variable is set then it overrides the contents of the
file, thus a default may be set but overridden as necessary

Be careful if setting it wrong; eg if reading a Solidisk disk with
a deleted file in the first catalogue then you will see a file with &7F
as the directory if you're not in SOLIDISK mode!

MMB Impacting commands
* daccess
    Does similar to *DLOCK and *DUNLOCK but using "*ACCESS" type syntax
        lock disk 40: beeb daccess 40 L
      unlock disk 40: beeb daccess 40

* dblank_mmb
    Creates blank 128Mb MMB file
    If an additional paramter is added (between 1 and 15) then this will
    create an Extended MMB (see below) with that number of additional
    catalogues.  Note 15 additional catalogues will result in a 1.7Gb
    file capable of handling 8176 disk images.
       beeb dblank_mmb -f NEW.MMB 15

* dcat
    Catalogue: Show disk images stored in the MMB.  The -a flag will also
    show unformatted disks

* dextend
    Adds an additional catalogue to the MMB file, effectively adding an extra
    511 disc slots to the image.  Will convert a normal MMB to a Extended MMB

* dget_ssd
    Extracts an SSD from an MMB

* dgetfile
    Extracts all the files from an SSD stored in an MMB
    A few characters are renamed to an _
    to keep the extracted filename "sane".  The leading "$." is removed
    (other BBC directory names are retained).
    If two files would be extracted with the same name then a -### count is
    added to the end.

    For each file a .inf is also created in the form
      Filename LOAD EXEC [Locked] CRC=####
    The Filename is the original BBC Filename.
    This "inf" file is compatble to the bbcim extraction tool from

* dform
    Puts a blank SSD onto the MMB.  Allows you to title the disk at the
    same time
      beeb dform 20 NewDisk

* dinfo
    Does an effective *INFO *.* for an SSD stored in an MMB
    (If the disk is multi-catalogue then the catalogue sector is also

* dkill
    Marks a disk in a slot as Unformatted  (*DKILL)
    If the optional R flag is passed then it "restores" the image
      beeb dkill 10
      beeb dkill 10 R
    A -y flag will force answer "yes" to override locked disks and won't
    ask you if you're sure; use with care
      beeb dkill -y 10

* dlabel
    Changes the label for disk in slot that shows with with *DCAT
    Note: this does not change the SSD title

* dmerge_mmb
    Will merge multiple MMB files together to create an Extended MMB
      beeb dmerge_mmb -f RESULTS.MMB part1.mmb part2.mmb part3.mmb

* dmmb_info
    Report some basic statistics on the MMB file (number of extents,
    number of disks, number unformatted)

* donboot
    Shows the current "boot disk" settings, and lets you change them.
    Will not let you set an unformatted disk unless -y flag is used
      beeb donboot -y 1 300

* dput_ssd
    Writes an SSD to an MMB.  You can't write into a slot that's in
    use (so dkill it first if you want to replace it).  The MMB
    catalogue name for this disk is set to the SSDs name

* dreplace_mmb
    Will replace a complete MMB image in an Extended MMB.  This may
    be useful if you have an Extended MMB built from multiple sources
    (eg a Games image, a Z80 image, a PanOS image) and you want to
    update just the Z80 image.  It will update the catalogue and the
    associated 511 disk images in the target Extended MMB with the
    requested MMB

      beeb dreplace_mmb new_z80.MMB 1

* dsplit_mmb
    Will split a Extended MMB into a collection of single extent MMBs
    numbered 0.MMB -> F.MMB.   If an optional number is given then only
    that extent will be extracted

      % beeb dsplit_mmb RESULTS 13
      Created RESULTS/D.MMB

* drecat
    Performs similar to *DRECAT; for each disk marked as formatted
    the title of the SSD will be read and the master catalogue updated.

SSD Impacting commands
Commands that update SSDs (eg delete, access, compact, putfile)
will not work on multi-catalogue disks.  The update commands
are mostly meant to create new SSDs for putting into MMBs.  Read commands
should work on multi-catalogues.

* access
    *ACCESS equivalent
      beeb access mydisk.ssd A.*
      beeb access mydisk.ssd B.* L
    Defaults to '$.' if no directory specified.
    Remember to quote shell characters if necessary!

* blank_ssd
    Creates a new blank 200Kb SSD image

* compact
     *COMPACT equivalent.

* delete
     Deletes files from an SSD. e.g
       beeb delete mydisk.ssd A.TESTFIL
     Multiple filenames can be used.  Directory defaults to '$'.
     We attempt to handle BBC wildcards as well.  e.g.
       beeb delete mydisk.ssd E.*
     It will ask a y/n question for each file before deleting.
     Optional parameter "-y" will skip the asking and will, instead,
     display the files deleted
       beeb delete Foo/RAM_Manager_2.ssd -y E.*
       Deleted E.OE00
       Deleted E.ASM
       Deleted E.CONVERT
       Deleted E.SE00
       Deleted E.E1770
       Deleted E.EXMON

    Remember you might need to quote on the command line to prevent the
    shell doing filename expansion!
      beeb delete Foo/dd.ssd \*

* getfile
    Extracts all the files from an SSD
    See dgetfile for details.

* info
    Does an effective *INFO *.* for an SSD

* merge_dsd
    Will take two SSD image and interleave them into a single DSD image
    If the -concat option is used then it assumes the DSD is two SSDs
    stacked after each other (side0 then side 2).  Without this option
    it assumes the disk tracks are interleaved (side0 track 0, side 2
    track 0, side 0 track 1... etc).  Interleaving is more normal.

* opt4
    *OPT4 equivalent

* putfile
    Puts all specified files onto an SSD.
      beeb putfile myssd file1 file2 file3 file4...
    Can use wildcards, eg
      beeb putfile myssd mydir/*
    This will attempt to read .inf files to work out load/exec/locked and
    filename.  If inf file doesn't exist then it'll use the name of the
    file with load/exec values of 0.

      % ls -l mydir 
      total 16
      -rw-r--r-- 1 sweh sweh  6 Mar 20 21:12 Test1
      -rw-r--r-- 1 sweh sweh 15 Mar 20 21:12 X.Test2
      -rw-r--r-- 1 sweh sweh 13 Mar 20 21:13 foo
      -rw-r--r-- 1 sweh sweh 39 Mar 20 21:13 foo.inf
    We can see there are three files, but one has a .inf file

      % cat mydir/foo.inf 
      $.FOO   FF1900 FF8023  Locked CRC=AB7A
    This means that "foo" is really called $.FOO
    So lets add these to a new SSD
      % beeb blank_ssd myssd
      Blank myssd created
      % beeb putfile myssd mydir/*
      % beeb info myssd
      Disk title:  (1)  Disk size: &320 - 200K
      Boot Option: 0 (None)   File count: 3
      Filename: Lck Lo.add Ex.add Length Sct
      $.FOO      L  FF1900 FF8023 00000D 004
      X.Test2       000000 000000 00000F 003
      $.Test1       000000 000000 000006 002
    note that case was preserved, and Test1 was put into $.

    There is an optional -c flag which will *COMPACT the disk before
    adding files.
    The SSD is only saved if all the files get added properly.

* rename
    beeb rename myfile.ssd o.oldname n.newname

* split_dsd
    Will take a DSD image and de-interleave it into two SSD images
    If the -concat option is used then it assumes the DSD is two SSDs
    stacked after each other (side0 then side 2).  Without this option
    it assumes the disk tracks are interleaved (side0 track 0, side 2
    track 0, side 0 track 1... etc).  Interleaving is more normal.

* title
    Does an effective *TITLE for an SSD

* to_stdout
    Will take an SSD and a filename on that disk and send it to stdout.
    So could be used in a pipeline, such as:
      beeb to_stdout mydisk.ssd '$.!BOOT' | beeb type -

Utility Programs (file commands)

* beeb
    Simple wrapper so you can do "beeb dcat" or similar.  In this
    way you just need to symlink this "beeb" program into your PATH
    (eg $HOME/bin) and that's it.

    You may need to set the one variable in the file:
      # $INSTALL_DIR="/where/you/installed/the/program";
    if the program can't work out the symlink target properly

    In good BBC style, a "." will act as a wildcard.  So "beeb i."
    might match "beeb info".  If multiple commands might match then an
    "Ambiguous" error message is returned.

* dump

* list
    Lists a basic program. 
       "-o #" applies LISTO options
       "-t XXX" uses the XXX decoder
           basic2 == BASIC 2 (default)
           basic4 == BASIC 4
           z80 == BASIC 4 for Z80
           arm == BASIC from the Arc
           b4w == BASIC for Windows
      beeb list myfile -o 7
     (Extra LISTO option "8" adds a space after each token)

    If you want a prettier lister (eg html, colour etc) then bbclist
      from W.H.Scholten produces nice output.

* type
    *TYPE (converts BBC to Unix line endings)

Disk format
MMB consists of 32 sectors (8Kb) of data, split into 16 byte blocks.
The first block of 8 chars is is in the format
 aa bb cc dd AA BB CC DD
where AAaa BBbb CCcc DDdd are the images inserted at boot time.  Default
is 00 01 02 03 00 00 00 00
"*ONBOOT 3 500" would make dd=F4 DD=01  (&01F4=500)

The next 8 bytes (completing the 16 byte block) are unused and are
typically all zero (see "Extended MMB", below).

After that comes 511 blocks which consist of
  DISKNAME(12 chars)
  unused (3 chars)
  STATUS(1 char)  0 ==> locked (readonly); 15=>Readwrite; 240=>Unformatted
                 255 => invalid

In theory the DISKNAME should match the disk TITLE in each place, but it
can get out of sync.  *RECAT on the MMC Utils ROM reads the title from
each SSD and updates this name.

Then each SSD is a chunk of 200Kb data following.  So disk 'n' starts
at 'n'*204800+8192.  That's all there is to an MMB.

An Extended MMB is pretty much just multiple MMBs concatenated on top
of each other.  This can extend the number of disks an MMB can hold in
steps of 511.  A previously unused byte (offset 8) in the table header
indicates how many additional MMBs there are.  It consists of 0xA# where
# is the number of additional entries.

In this format we have
  <Disk table Header for disks 0-510>
  <511 SSD images>
  <Disk table Header for disks 511->1021>
  <511 SSD images>
  <Disk table Header for disks 1022->1532>
  <511 SSD images>
up to a total of 15 additional headers, which results in disk numbers 0->8175.

If this form of MMB is used in a BBC which doesn't understand the extended
format then that machine should be able to read the first 511 disks, so
is backwards compatible.

An SSD is a simple 200K (80track 10 sector) image.  Since it's literally
an image it follows the standard Acorn DFS layout.

Sector 0 is split into 32 * 8byte records.  Record 0 is the first 8
characters of the disk title.  Records 1->31 have filename (7 chars)
and directory(1 char).  If the high bit of the directory is set then
the file is locked.

Sector 1 is similarly split into 32*8 bytes but a lot more complicated.
Bytes 0->3 are the last 4 characters of the disk title.  The title is NULL
  terminated if it's shorter than 12 chars.
Byte 4 is (BCD) the "write cycle".  In theory every write should update
  that, but really... who cares?
Byte 5 is "number of files"*8
Byte 6: bits 4 and 5 encode the "*OPT 4" value
        bits 0 and 1 are the high bits for "number of sectors"
Byte 7 is the low 8 bits of "number of sectors"

Now for a "double density" disk, you need 11 bits to encode the disk
size, so Solidisk and others used byte 6 bit 2 (unused) for this.
This code will always assume this bit is part of the sector size.

See "Solidisk chained catalgues" (below) for a minor variation on this.

Now we have the remaining 31 records, which match file equivalent
files in sector 0.  They are laid out like this:
where "LLLL" is the load address, "EEEE" is the exec address, "SSSS" is
the size, and "YY" is the start sector.  "XX" is the fun one.
  bits 0+1 are high bits of sector start
  bits 2+3 are high bits of load address
  bits 4+5 are high bits of size
  bits 6+7 are high bits of exec address

That makes 10 bits for start sector and 18 bits for size.

But on a 320K disk you need 11 bits for stat sector and 19 bits for size.
So Solidisk steals bits 2 and 3 ("load address").  bit 2 is added to the
sector, bit 3 to the size.  This means we have now only have 8 bits for
the load address.  So, by trial and error (and disk sector editing -
Solidisk DDFS comes with *DZAP :-)) I found that Solidisk reuses the
high bits of the "exec" address as the high bits of the "load" address.

Solidisk chained catalogues
Solidisk also has the concept of "chained catalogues".  If
byte 2 & 192 == 192 then the low nibble of byte 2 and byte 3 point to
the next catalogue, where another 30 files might be stored.

So looking at a hex dump of the first 8 bytes of sector 1:
  00000100  00 00 C0 21 35 F8 03 20   ...!5.. 

You'll notice &102 and &103 have odd values in them.  We can see that
&102 AND 192 == 192 so &102 AND 63 and &103 point to the next
catalogue.  In this case we have a second catalogue at sector &021.
Yes, this means disk titles are be limited to 10 characters.

And here it is:
00002100  3F 3F 3F 3F 3F 3F 3F 3F   ????????
00002108  46 49 4C 45 36 30 20 24   FILE60 $
00002110  46 49 4C 45 35 39 20 24   FILE59 $

Obviously the "title" doesn't mean anything in secondary catalogues!

We note a funky entry in the 2nd catalogue:
000021f8  3F 3F 3F 3F 3F 3F 3F BF   ???????.
and its associated data:
000022f8  00 00 00 00 00 21 00 02   .....!..

Basically this an "invisible" file that pretends to fill up the disk from
sector 2 to where this new catalogue starts.  It's a cheap kludge so that
programs like *COMPACT can work on this catalogue without worrying about
what is before.  Everything in earlier catalogues is now frozen.  So what
happens if you delete or change a file in an earlier catalogue?  That
value gets marked "deleted", thus:
  000000a8  46 49 4C 45 31 30 20 FF   FILE10 .
(Basically the directory is set to &FF).  The space isn't reclaimed, but
DDFS now ignores it.

Looking, again at the 2nd catalogue, at the "data" sector:
00002200  00 21 C0 41 30 F8 03 20   .!.A0.. 
Oops, a third catalog at sector &41.  This follows the same pattern, but
we get:
000041d0  46 49 4C 45 36 32 20 24   FILE62 $
000041d8  46 49 4C 45 36 31 20 24   FILE61 $
000041e0  3F 3F 3F 3F 3F 3F 3F BF   ???????.
000041e8  3F 3F 3F 3F 3F 3F 3F 3F   ????????

Ah ha, the locked ?.??????? entry is the locked file again, and all entries
after that are just ?.??????? because they haven't been used yet.  This
means that the locked ?.??????? entry is a good "end of catalogue" marker
because it'll always be the first entry written (so the last in the sector)
when a 2ndary catalogue is created.


Opus does things differently to everyone else.  It's a little bizarre,

Basically, for a double-density disk (only!) they split the drive into
sub-drives.  Drive 0 is really split into drive 0A to 0H.  Now some of
these drives may be of zero length and so empty.  Each of these drives
can be a maximum of 252K in size (&3F0 sectors).  See what they did
there?  They avoided the whole problem of handling sector sizes over
2^10 long, or file sizes over 2^18 long so the catalogues are Acorn
standard.  To add more space, the catalogues actually live outside
of the "drive", so files in the drive are allocated from sector zero.

Now an Opus disk is 18 sectors per track, and allocations are done
per track.

Track 0
  Sector  0, 1 : catalogue A
  Sector  2, 3 : catalogue B
  Sector  4, 5 : catalogue C
  Sector  6, 7 : catalogue D
  Sector  8, 9 : catalogue E
  Sector 10,11 : catalogue F
  Sector 12,13 : catalogue G
  Sector 14,15 : catalogue H
  Sector    16 : Disk allocation table
  Sector    17 : unused
Tracks 1 to 79 are the data.

The disk allocation table is small.
has some details, but #4 doesn't seem to match.  We see that bytes 1,2,3,4
allow for different format of disks (eg 40 track, 35 track) and even
different densities.  But the standard 80-track double density disk will
be as follows:
    byte 0: &20
  byte 1,2: disk size (&5A0)
    byte 3: sector per track (&12)
    byte 4: &50  (but I've also seen &FF in testing!)
  byte  8, 9: track start for A
  byte 10,11: track start for B
  byte 12,13: track start for C
  byte 14,15: track start for D
  byte 16,17: track start for E
  byte 18,19: track start for F
  byte 20,21: track start for G
  byte 22,23: track start for H
  00001000  20 05 A0 12 50 00 00 00    ...P...
  00001008  01 00 39 00 00 00 00 00   ..9.....
  00001010  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00   ........
  00001018  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00   ........
We have two disks (A, starting at track 1, and B, starting at track &39).
The other disks are not defined.

This is wasteful of data (a whole unused sector!) but given we have 360K
of data rather than 200K of the original Acorn format, I guess Opus figured
this was a fair trade off.

2015/05/30 - Make opt4 a function (lazy lazy; it should always have been!)
           - split add_file_to_ssd into a function that loads inf as
             necessary and into add_content_to_ssd() 

2015/06/01 - Add some binmode() calls to let this work better on Windows
           - safety check on $ENV{HOME} since Windows doesn't define this

2015/07/11 - merge_dsd program added

2018/09/15 - Change FindBin::Bin to FindBin::RealBin to handle relative
             symlinks.  Thanks to Ray Bellis

2019/09/06 - Allow BBC_FILE to specify the MMB file

2019/09/17 - Strip out bad characers in titles in MMB catalogue

2020/10/03 - Add drecat

2020/11/11 - Add -concat options to split_dsd/merge_dsd

2021/08/26 - Allow for "-" to be specified as an SSD name eg for things like
               unzip -q -c | beeb info -
             Add new command "to_stdout"

2021/09/28 - Allow "-a" for dcat to show all disk slots, even unformatted ones
             Add the ability to handle Extended MMBs
             Add dextend to add an extent to an MMB
             Add dmmb_info to report on some basic MMB statistics
             Added dsplit_mmb
             Added dmerge_mmb
             Added dreplace_mmb

2021/09/30 - Added dbase command and report BASE value in dmmb_info

2021/10/02 - Allow dmmb_info to report on current base MMB onboot settings
             Fix critical offset calculation error for first disk in each
             Add bdiag
             Fix blank_mmb image size so extensions start correctly blank
             Have put_ssd abort if request disk is out of range

2023/03/21 - Handle z80 basic and basic 4 windows; they code lines differently